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TUI Cultural Differences Exist BW Relief Providers & Members of Community Response

TUI Cultural Differences Exist BW Relief Providers & Members of Community Response

Question Description

Discussion Requirements

A substantive comment should be approximately 300 words or more for each response, a total of 2 responses.

Read the initial comments posted by your classmates and reflect upon them.

Before writing your comments:

  • Review the Discussion grading rubric to see what is expected for an excellent discussion, in order to earn full credit.
  • Review some resources to help you synthesize, such as the following:

Sullivan, J. (2011). Strategies for Synthesis Writing. Retrieved from

NOTE: You are required to cite sources and include a reference list for the second post if it is simply your opinion. However, if your opinion is based on facts (as it should be), it is good practice to strengthen your position by citing sources.

Be sure to meet all of the criteria in the rubric, as noted in the instructions above.

Third post for each module discussion:

Read the initial and secondary comments posted by your classmates and reflect upon them.

Directly respond to at least one classmate in a way that extends meaningful discussions, adds new information, and/or offers alternative perspectives.


Classmates and Professor,

Public Health, Cultural Competence and Emergency Response

Cultural competency is a critical aspect in public health that is anchored on an effective emergency response plan. To address the cultural, racial, and dietary requirements based on cultural practices, the Emergency Response Plan is critical. One of the provisions should be anchored on strategies to respond to the diversified people’s mental needs in the event of an emergency such as death, a terrorist attack or any natural calamity. For example, the Boston Marathon bombings left many injured people, responders, and others with short and long term mental health needs” (Beinecke, 2017). Therefore, an efficient strategy of responding to the psychological needs of those affected by the disaster is such a noble course in the great field of medicine. Natural calamities have devastating effects on the victims. Even though some heal within the required time frame, others struggle with long term psychological disorders such as hearing complications, depression and the Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (Beinecke, 2017). Professional counselling is a critical component to be embedded in the Emergency Response Plan. It is vital to seek professional services of individuals and community-based organizations that will provide psychosocial support services in an emergency.

Another provision to be included in the ERP is the candid role of applied epidemiology in the event of a disaster. Malilay et al. (2014) opine that “disasters are complex situations in which the consequences of the event are beyond the capability of an affected jurisdiction to respond effectively”. Disasters can be natural or induced. An indomitable response plan that deals with the immediate effects of the diversified population’s catastrophe are highly recommended. For example, the ERP should have means of meeting the mass injuries, treating acute illness and how the environment should be restored if there is a disruption of water events and people are exposed to toxic spills.

It is a must to have cultural competency training in Bordentown City (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services O.M.H., 2021). It is a highly diversified city with people from different political, religious, economic and social backgrounds. The only requirement to be included in the Emergency Response Plan is the epidemiological concepts of disaster response and management. The inclusion would not affect my ERP (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services O.M.H., 2021).



Beinecke, R. H. (2017). Addressing the mental health needs of victims and responders to the Boston Marathon bombings. International Journal of Mental Health. 43(2)17-34. Available at Trident Online Library.

City of Bordentown. (2021, 15 February). City of Bordentown, New Jersey. Retrieved from

Malilay, J., Heumann, M., Perrotta, D., Wolkin, A. F., Schnall, A.H., Podgornik, M. N., & Simms, E. F. (2014). The role of applied epidemiology methods in the disaster management cycle. American Journal of Public Health, 104(11) 2092-2102. Available at Trident Online Library.

Township of Bordentown. (2021, Feburary 15). Office of Emergency Management. Retrieved from Nixle:

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services O.M.H. (2021, February 15). MANDATORY CULTURAL COMPETENCY TRAINING LEGISLATION TIMELINE. Retrieved from Think Cultural Health:…



Classmates and Professor,

There is a large body of literature on the concerns that ethnoculturalism plays into disaster relief. In a metadata analysis done by Anthony Marsella and Michael Christopher, they outlined the concerns of cultural differences between those that provide relief and those that are suffering from the disaster. If the disaster relief organization only uses traditional Western practices and does not take into account cultural traditions, the relief workers may end up causing conflicts that could exacerbate and compound the suffering the people effected. The treatment of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) for victims of a disaster may not be completely effective or maybe counterproductive if they conflict with cultural and spiritual norms.

A city’s Emergency Response Plan (ERP) is designed to cover numerous elements as they are related to critical incidents. These incidents could be man-made, natural, or a combination of the two, however, the ERP should be designed to accommodate all affected persons within the city’s geographical location. The United States is a culturally diverse nation and has different ethic, religious, and racial groups interacting in confined areas. Different cultural groups may have needs, limitations, and boundaries that diverge from one another. These differences can be found in food preparation, dietary limitations for example Muslims and Jewish people do not consume pork, and Asian cultures like the Indian culture that are commonly vegetarian. The state of Massachusetts has not proposed a bill that would require that cultural training or standards be implemented into their Emergency Management Process, however, I would recommend they first implement measures to address dietary cultural limitations, we look for the group that is the most restrictive limitations. The Jewish cultural requires that food is to be Kosher meaning that the food has to be prepared in specific way according to scared texts. The Muslim cultural has limitations on how their food is prepared referred to as Hala, the guidelines for Hala are not a rigorous as those of Kosher meaning that Muslims are allowed to eat Kosher foods. Shelter and Security have no cultural limitations but medical and religious services could create a challenge. Identifying the limitations that cultures could have on the medical treatment process may require that certain medical personal available for only a limited number of people, for example it may be considered inappropriate for a man to treat a woman in the Muslim culture or for a Muslim man to be treated by a woman. This kind of conflict could be mitigated by having Religious or cultural representatives on site to provide guidance to relief workers and to mitigate concerns. These types of scenarios would require that relief works and staff be trained and evaluated on identifying cultural differences. Some basics information that could be used to train relief workers:

-Demographic Statistics- The estimated numbers of a certain cultural group in the area that could be affected.

-Identifiable Characteristics- Style of clothing, manner of dress, hair style to include facial, and racial features.

-Cultural/Religious Leadership- Who are leaders of these different demographics, Priest, Iman, Shaman, or Matriarch/Patriarch. Outline their roles in that culture.

-Common Cultural Limitations- Specific diet, religious services (multiple devotion events each day), same sex or opposite sex restrictions.

These are just some of the topics that could be used to train relief workers and should be identified within an ERP to ensure that safe care, humane treatment, and preservation of life in the wake of a disaster.



Christopher, M., & Marsella, A., (2004). Ethnocultural considerations in disasters: an overview of research, issues, and directions. Retrieved from


United States Department of Health and Human Services, (2011). Public Health Emergency Response Guide for State, Local, and Tribal Public Health Directors. Retrieved from…




Emergencies and disasters can strike at any given moment with little to no alerts. For this reason, it would be wise for cities to be prepared and the best way to be prepared is to have an Emergency Response Plan (ERP) for your city. Prior to developing your ERP, you must know and understand the demographical and cultural make up of your city. The reason this is important is because it allows for the allotment of resources in the time of an emergency to be prioritize based on the different cultures and people in your city. The goal is to help whichever group that would need help in the event of an emergency or disaster.

My city is made up of a diverse population that consists of Jewish, Muslim, Asian, and Haitian Creole people. My ERP should include all these culturally different groups as this will better help the city respond to their needs in the time of an emergency meanwhile respecting their traditions and way of life. To incorporate the different groups in my ERP, I would have already been building relationships within these communities by way of operating under the National Standards for Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Services (CLAS standards. The National CLAS standards is “aim to improve health care quality and advance health equity by establishing a framework for organizations to serve the nation’s increasingly diverse communities” (Office of Minority Health, 2018). The standards require relationship building within these different cultural groups as in time of response the city will already be able to account for differences and barriers (i.e., language) that could cause the delay of life saving resources in the event of an emergency or disaster.

I reside in the state of Illinois where cultural competency training is mandatory. This would make a difference in my ERP because its clear that the state is culturally diverse thus making it important to account for the different groups of people and culture. When it comes to emergency and disasters, the best plans are those that accounts for everyone that might be affected.



MinorityHealth. (n.d.). Tracking CLAS. Retrieved February 17, 2021, from

Office of Minority Health. (2018, October 02). Office of Minority Health. Retrieved February 17, 2021, from


Module 1 – Background


Required Reading

Association of Public Health Nurses. (2014). The role of the public health nurse in disaster preparedness, response, and recovery: A position statement. Retrieved from…

Beinecke, R. H. (2017). Addressing the mental health needs of victims and responders to the Boston Marathon bombings. International Journal of Mental Health. 43(2)17-34. Available at Trident Online Library.

CDC. (2018). Environmental health services: Emergency and terrorism preparedness for Environmental Health Practitioners. Retrieved from

DHHS (2015) Cultural and linguistic competency in disaster preparedness and response fact sheet. Retrieved from…

Malilay, J., Heumann, M., Perrotta, D., Wolkin, A. F., Schnall, A.H., Podgornik, M. N., . . . & Simms, E. F. (2014). The role of applied epidemiology methods in the disaster management cycle. American Journal of Public Health,104(11) 2092-2102. Available at Trident Online Library.

Murray, V., Aitsi-Selmi, A., & Blanchard, K. (2015). The role of public health within the United Nations post-2015 Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction. International Journal of Disaster Risk Science, 6(1) 28–37. Available at Trident Online Library.

Murray, V. et al. (2015). The role of public health within the United Nations post-2015 framework for disaster risk reduction. International Journal of Disaster Risk Science (6)1. Available at Trident Online Library.

Public health emergency response guide for state, local, and tribal public health directors, V2.0 (2011), Retrieved from…

The national CLAS standards (2018). Retrieved from…

Required Websites

Coronavirus Disease 2019(COVID-19).…

Medical Reserve Corps. Public Health Emergency.

Think Cultural Health.…

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