Origins And Purpose Of Legislative Agencies
The legislative branch is where legislative agencies originate. These organizations were established by legislation that Congress approved and voted on. It must have approval from the President before it can be formally formed by law. The President chooses a secretary after everything is ready and officially started. The leaders of the agency are the secretaries. Congress must vote to endorse the chosen candidate after making the choice.
A legislative agency’s primary responsibility is to support the President and Congress in administering federal laws related to their area of expertise. Each organization has a single objective related to a particular area of interest. When legislative agencies are established, a specific issue that hampers public safety and national security is addressed. Each legislative body plays a significant role in this country’s operation.
I decided on the Department of Homeland Security as my agency in light of the situation in Afghanistan. I chose this organization to comprehend the Taliban and American histories thoroughly.
President Biden declared on April 14, 2021, that American forces would leave Afghanistan and their military missions would end since they were no longer required (The White House, 2021). After 20 years, American military operations in the nation will come to an end. In retaliation for the 9/11 terrorist attack against the United States, the United States invaded Afghanistan nearly two decades ago. Although the Taliban were not behind the attack, they were guarding Osama Bin Laden, the mastermind.
Osama Bin Laden was a native of Saudi Arabia and had no connection to Afghanistan. During the Soviet-Afghan War, the Taliban showed him a favor. To advance the communist cause, the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan on December 24, 1979 (History, 2020). Bin Laden intervened on Afghanistan’s behalf because he believed the invasion was disrespectful to Islam. He repelled the Soviets using his fighters and resources, and they withdrew. Bin Laden emerged as a hero when they left Afghanistan, having failed in their goal. He won the Taliban’s support and assisted in their ascent to power in Afghanistan.
The Persian Gulf War began on August 2, 1990, when Saddam Hussain commanded his Iraqi army to attack Kuwait (United States Department of State | Office of the Historian, nd). Bin Laden assisted his country while enjoying his prestigious status in Afghanistan. Due to his unconventional methods, the Saudi Arabian government rejected it. The Saudis, on the other hand, leaned on American assistance. This infuriated Bin Laden, who grew to despise the United States. Bin Laden was driven out of Saudi Arabia with his extremist strategies over the years.
He wanted revenge on the United States for sending him into exile. Bin Ladden ordered to bomb two American embassies in Kenya and Tanzania on August 7, 1998 (Federal Bureau of Investigation | History, nd). Because it was the day that the United States entered Saudi Arabia eight years ago, he specifically sought out this date. Four thousand five hundred people were injured due to the attack, along with 212 indigenous and 12 Americans who perished (Federal Bureau of Investigation | History, nd). In order to find safety, Bin Laden fled to Afghanistan while being sought for extradition by American authorities. He was being held by the Taliban, who would not surrender to American officials. This only bolstered his terrorist objective. Nobody could have predicted what would happen next.
Nineteen fighters for Bin Laden boarded and took control of 4 aircraft on September 11, 2001 (9/11 Memorial and Museum, nd). The intention was to bring severe mayhem by crashing the aircraft into famous American structures. Flight 11 collided with the World Trade Center’s North Twin Tower at 8:46 am, and Flight 175 collided with the South Twin Tower 17 minutes later (9/11 Memorial and Museum, nd). The three and four were flying to Washington, D.C. Flight 93 diverted from the Washington, D.C., region due to passengers attempting to regain control of the aircraft (9/11 Memorial and Museum, nd). Flight 77 struck the Pentagon at 9:37 am. Despite being diverted from its intended White House target, Flight 93 ended up in a Pennsylvanian field. The country was stunned. Nothing like this has ever happened in the United States. Two thousand nine hundred seventy-seven people died, and about 25,000 were injured (9/11 Memorial and Museum, nd). one of the bloodiest and most infamous terrorist acts in history.
Congress realized action needed to be taken because the country was in a frenzy. The Homeland Security Act of 2002 (H.R. 5005 – 107th Congress), which was passed on November 25, 2002, was signed into law by President George W. Bush. This bill established the Department of Homeland Security. This organization aimed to stop terrorism and other atrocities like 9/11. Additionally, it was developed to restore a certain amount of safety and security to the country. Border patrol, immigration and customs, the secret service, cyber security, disaster management, and transportation security administration are all within the department’s control (U.S. Department Of Homeland Security, 2020).
Possibilities and Limitations
The agency has approximately 19 years of expertise and has experienced remarkable successes that have bolstered its power. The Transportation Security Administration, or TSA, is one of their successes. The TSA is present in every airport in the United States. Each passenger must undergo a thorough security process before boarding the aircraft and removing everything from their possession to be searched and scanned.
Although some find the practice humiliating, everything is done for safety. Before boarding the aircraft, each of the 19 Al-Qaeda hijackers passed through a checkpoint. The security checkpoint was relatively lax during those times. TSA was created to implement stronger regulations to stop another 9/11-type incident. Public safety while traveling has been maintained by their unwavering commitment. The Transportation Security Administration (TSA) retrieved 3,257 guns in 2020, and 83% were loaded (TSA, 2021). Without TSA, the possible outcome might have been fatal.
The initiatives to prevent and end cybercrime are another strength. Over time, cybercrime has doubled in prevalence. Personal data and billions of dollars have been taken. After months of thorough investigations, the Department of Homeland Security supplied considerable factual support for Alexander Vinnik’s detention. He was BTC-e’s creator and manager. Over $4 billion was made available to cybercriminals engaged in public corruption, hacking, and disseminating narcotics, ransomware, and other threats (U.S. Department of Homeland Security, nd). Later, in 2017, Vinnik was detained in Greece. BTC-e orchestrated 95% of ransom payments, which was later determined after his arrest (U.S. Department of Homeland Security, nd). Although Vinnik’s operations were based abroad, the organization’s commitment to combating cybercrime knows no bounds.
Great strengths can come with weaknesses. Border Patrol and Immigration Customs and Enforcement, generally known as ICE, are the agency’s weakest link. They receive the most praise and criticism for their efforts. The Border Patrol is in charge of guarding the American borders and ensuring everyone entering the country is present legally. Over 210,000 illegal immigrants were detained by Border Patrol in July 2021 while attempting to breach the Mexican-American border (Bensman, 2021). Due to the shift in administration, this number has dramatically increased from prior years. As of July 2021, about 37,000 illegal immigrants had successfully crossed the Mexican border into the United States (Bensman, 2021).
Some people immigrate to the United States for a better life and an escape from the harsh reality they encounter at home, while others do so maliciously. It is challenging to distinguish between the excellent and the terrible. As a result, there is some threat to American security.
ICE is in charge of running immigration detention facilities and expelling people who have broken the law. There has been a huge uproar recently to end ICE operations. One thousand five hundred kids were reported missing in 2018 (Nixon, 2018). Following their unsuccessful attempt to cross the border, these kids were separated from their families and placed in detention facilities run by ICE. Nobody was aware of where to look for the missing kids. Once the kids entered the area, poor tracking management resulted in this catastrophe.
Facilities. Another terrible incident happened after the tale made headline news. A photo from an immigration center in Texas surfaced and quickly went viral. The image depicted kids being kept in cages with blankets made of aluminum foil. The cruel treatment that was taking place in these facilities was sharply criticized by many. Officials avoided questioning it and never adequately addressed the issues. This displayed cowardice and frailty.
Process of Making Rules
President Harry S. Truman ratified the Administrative Procedure Act on June 11, 1946 (U.S. Department of Justice, nd). It granted federal agencies the power to impose rules and come to conclusions on their own.
The Department of Homeland Security is made up of seven subsidiary organizations: the Coast Guard, the Federal Emergency Management Agency, the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center,
(National Archives and Records Administration: Federal Register, nd) National Communications Systems, Secret Service, Transportation Security Administration, U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services, U.S. Customs and Border Protection, and U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement. A team within a sub-agency develops a rule that falls under the purview of their agency as part of the rulemaking process. Once created, the group sends it for consideration by the administrator. It is sent to the Department of Homeland Security leadership group after the administrator has reviewed it. They review the plan to ensure it fits the department’s and agency’s mission. They also look for adherence to fundamental values and a lack of threat to civil freedoms and rights. It is finalized after everything is in order and there are no objections.
Since the department’s inception, defending the country has been the top focus. to prevent a repeat of 9/11. I think the department has played a significant role in this. We are working nonstop to safeguard and preserve our safety, sifting through and scanning each aspect for hazards, maintaining constant vigilance, and pursuing terrorist organizations like ISIS. We are lucky to be in a nation that respects our humanity and will use any measures necessary to safeguard us.
This essay is dedicated to the people who tragically lost their life. They are heroes to their families and the country. May their memory live on forever in our hearts.
Legislative organizations were established for a reason. They are tasked with addressing and combating the problems in our country. The Department of Homeland Security was aware of its goals. They have put up innumerable battles to provide our country security.
9/11 Memorial and Museum. (nd). 9/11 Interactive timelines. Retrieved on September 6, 2021, from https://timeline.911memorial.org/#FrontPage
Bensman, T. (2021). July apprehension numbers have entered a historic crisis level. Center for Immigration Studies. Retrieved on September 6, 2021, from https://cis.org/Bensman/July-Apprehension-Numbers-Have-Entered-Historic-Crisis-Level Federal Bureau of Investigation | History. (nd). East African Embassy bombing. Retrieved on September 6, 2021, from https://www.fbi.gov/history/famous-cases/east-african-embassy-bombings
H.R.5005 – 107th Congress (2002): Homeland Security Act of 2002. Retrieved on September 6, 2021, from https://www.congress.gov/bill/107th-congress/house-bill/5005
History. (2020). Soviet Union invades Afghanistan. Retrieved on September 6, 2021, from https://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/soviet-tanks-roll-into-afghanistan
National Archives and Records Administration: Federal Register. (nd). Homeland Security Department. Retrieved on September 6, 2021, from https://www.federalregister.gov/agencies/homeland-security-department
Nixon, R. (2018). The U.S. loses track of another 1,500 migrant children, investigators find. The New York Times.Retrieved on September 6, 2021, from https://www.nytimes.com/2018/09/18/us/politics/us-migrant-children-whereabouts-.html
The United States Department of Justice. (nd). Administrative Procedure Act. Retrieved on September 6, 2021, from https://www.justice.gov/sites/default/files/jmd/legacy/2014/05/01/act-pl79-404.pdf
The White House. (2021). Remarks by President Biden on the way forward in Afghanistan. Retrieved on September 6, 2021, from https://www.whitehouse.gov/briefing-room/speeches-remarks/2021/04/14/remarks-by-president- Biden-on-the-way-forward-in-Afghanistan/
Transportation Security Administration. (2021). TSA firearm catch rate doubles in 2020-highest in the agency’s 19-year history. Retrieved on September 6, 2021, from https://www.tsa.gov/news/press/releases/2021/01/26/tsa-firearm-catch-rate-doubles-2020-highest-agencys-19-year-history
U.S. Department Of Homeland Security. (nd). Cybersecurity strategy. Retrieved on September 6, 2021, from https://www.dhs.gov/sites/default/files/publications/DHS-Cybersecurity-Fact-Sheet.pdf
U.S. Department Of Homeland Security. (2020). Operational and support components. Retrieved on September 6, 2021, from https://www.dhs.gov/operational-and-support-components
United States Department of State | Office of the Historian. (nd). The first Gulf War. Retrieved on September 6, 2021, from https://history.state.gov/departmenthistory/short-history/firstgulf
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Learning more about the origins of legislative agencies will help you understand their purpose and shed light on what makes them a unique part of our American government.
For this paper, you will explain the functions of legislative agencies, describe an agency of interest, and describe the rulemaking procedures a public administrator for the agency follows.
Using the A–Z Index of U.S. Government Departments and AgenciesLinks to an external site. Choose an agency you are interested in or are curious about. Then, write a 4–5 page paper that fully responds to each of the items below and provides both a clear and thorough response to each:
- Explain what a legislative agency is. What are its functions?
- Identify an agency of interest to you. When was your agency created? What is its purpose? Provide detailed information in both responses.
- Identify at least two strengths and two weaknesses of your chosen agency. Be sure to provide examples of the identified strengths and weaknesses. You should provide at least one example for each identified strength and weakness.
- Briefly outline the rulemaking process and procedures for your agency.
- In your opinion, has this agency been successful in accomplishing its mission? Why or why not? Provide evidence to support your opinion.
Use at least three sources to support your writing. Choose sources that are credible, relevant, and appropriate. Cite each source listed on your sources page once within your assignment. Access the library or review library guides for help with research, writing, and citing sources.
This course requires the use of Strayer Writing Standards (SWS). The library is your home for SWS assistance, including citations and formatting. Please refer to the Library site for all support. Check with your professor for any additional instructions.
Is assignment is:
- Determine how case law guides and affects public administration and public policy.
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